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2D Semiconductors



Monolayer Black Phosphorus Solution


Monolayer Black Phosphorus Solution


Product Description

This product contains black phosphorus (BPs) mono- and few-layer flakes solution in ethanol. The BPs solution has been developed by ultrasonic treatment of BPs high quality crystals synthesized through cubic anvil device high pressure growth technique. Since the starting material BPs is highly crystalline, ultrasonic treatment to delaminate BPs layers yields highly crystalline BPs mono-, few-, and some thick layers suspended in ethanol solution. The crystallinity of BPs nanomaterials has been confirmed through electron energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Raman spectroscopy (FWHM<5 cm-1), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. Lateral sizes of BPs flakes deposited onto different substrates range from ~25nm - ~10 mm while thickness range from 1L to 10s of layers.

Note on volume, concentration, and solvent type: To reduce shipping costs, we ship supersaturated 2D solutions (~80-120 mg/L depending on the type of 2D layers). However, supersaturated solutions can be diluted to produce ~250-500mL of solution to deposit 2D layers onto desired substrates through simple and cost-effective spin-casting process. In our product, ethanol is used (and recommended) as the dispersant solvent owing to its environmental stability, thermal stability, dispersant properties, and non-contaminating nature. However, if your research needs other solvents, please contact us at support_at_2dsemiconductors.com

Sample Properties. 

2D BPs solution specifications


  • Identification. BPs solutions created by delamination of BPs crystals (grown by high pressure technique) through ultrasonication technique
  • Physical dimensions. 1 to 10 layers in thickness (thicker pieces might be observed depending on usage) and 10nm to 10 microns in lateral dimensions.
  • Smoothness. Atomically smooth surface with roughness < 0.35 nm.
  • Purity. 99.999% purity as determined by nano-SIMS measurements
  • Stability. High environmental and dispersant stability.
  • Crystallinity. Highly crystalline nanomaterials. No amorphous sheets, contaminants, or hidden secondary phases.
  • Dispersant solution. Ethanol is highly recommended though other solvents can be prepared on demand.
  • Support. 2Dsemiconductors USA is an American owned, regulated, and operated company. Our customers are well-protected by international as well as strict American customer laws and regulations. We give full technical support and guarantee your satisfaction with our well-established customer

SEM images taken from black phosphorus solution spin cast onto SiO2/Si substrates

SEM images of black phosphorus solution

2D solution SEM images

EDS spectrum measured directly from BPs solution deposited onto other substrates

EDS spectrum on BPs solution

Raman spectrum of BPs solutions

Raman spectrum of 2D BPs solution

Frequently asked questions

Q1: What is the volume of the solution? 

A: Each order can either contain 2mL of supersaturated monolayer solution (~200mg/L) or dense 20mL solutions (~20mg/L). We recommend using 2mL solutions as this will cut down the shipping charges and shipping times.

Q2: Are these 2D solutions consist of 100% monolayers? 

A: This will depend on your requirements. We can design monolayer, few-layer, multi-layer, and even bulk layered solutions. Please identify what kind of solution (material type) you prefer to use during check out.

Q3: How about the solution types?

A: This will also depend on your application. We have capability to accommodate IPA, H2O, DMF, NMP, and many others. Just let us know what you have in mind.



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