Monolayer WS2 Solution
This product contains WS2 flakes solution in ethanol. The WS2 solution has been developed by ultrasonic treatment of bulk WS2 high quality crystals synthesized through vapor transport (CVT) technique. Since the starting material (CVT grown WS2 crystals) is highly crystalline, ultrasonic treatment to delaminate WS2 layers yields highly crystalline WS2 mono-, few-, and some thick layers suspended in ethanol solution. The solution predominantly contains monolayer flakes, however other thickness might be observed as well. The crystallinity of WS2 nanomaterials has been confirmed through electron energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX), Raman spectroscopy (FWHM<5 cm-1), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. Depending on the thickness of the layers, flakes deposited on different substrates produce light emission (photoluminescence). Lateral sizes of WS2 flakes deposited onto different substrates range from ~10nm - ~10 mm while thickness range from 1L to 10s of layers.
Note on volume, concentration, and solvent type: To reduce shipping costs, we ship supersaturated 2D solutions (~80-120 mg/L depending on the type of 2D layers). However, supersaturated solutions can be diluted to produce ~250-500mL of solution to deposit 2D layers onto desired substrates through simple and cost-effective spin-casting process. In our product, ethanol is used (and recommended) as the dispersant solvent owing to its environmental stability, thermal stability, dispersant properties, and non-contaminating nature. However, if your research needs other solvents, please contact us at
Typical SEM images collected from 2D solutions
Typical SEM images collected from thin films of 2D WS2 film deposited onto SiO2/Si substrates by spin-casting process
Raman spectrum from 2D WS2 solution
EDS spectrum from 2D WS2 solution
Frequently asked questions
Q1: Are these solutions good for catalytic measurements?
A: Yes, our 2D solutions are commonly used by catalysis community
Q2: What is the volume of the solution?
A: Each order can either contain 2mL of supersaturated monolayer solution (~200mg/L) or dense 20mL solutions (~20mg/L). We recommend using 2mL solutions as this will cut down the shipping charges and shipping times.
Q3: Are these 2D solutions consist of 100% monolayers?
A: This will depend on your requirements. We can design monolayer, few-layer, multi-layer, and even bulk layered solutions. Please identify what kind of solution (material type) you prefer to use during check out.
Q4: How about the solution types?
A: This will also depend on your application. We have capability to accommodate IPA, H2O, DMF, NMP, and many others. Just let us know what you have in mind.